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Happy but Unequal : Differences in Subjective Well-Being across Individuals and Space in Colombia (anglais)

Despite being on average a relatively happy country, Colombia has a high level of inequality in subjective well-being. Using Gallup World Poll data for the period from 2010 to 2018, this paper tests the direction and strength of association of a range of objective and subjective factors with subjective well-being and explains differences in subjective well-being across individuals and space. The perceived welfare of the average Colombian is mainly influenced by conditions and expectations related to economic opportunities and education. However, quantile regressions, reveal substantial differences in the domains that matter to those at the bottom and top of the experienced welfare distribution. Standard-of-living improvements, housing affordability, and civic engagement matter more to the most fortunate top 20 percent, while having education, a job, sufficient income, economic security, and digital connectivity are much more strongly associated with the well-being of the bottom 20 percent. The life domains that matter more to the unhappiest respondents also explain the majority of the spatial differences in perceived welfare between residents in urban and rural areas as well as core and peripheral regions. Policy actions aimed at closing the gaps in these areas have the potential to increase well-being and reduce inequality in Colombia.


  • Auteur

    Burger,Martijn, Hendriks,Martijn, Ianchovichina,Elena

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  • Type de document

    Document de travail de recherche sur les politiques

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  • Total Volume(s)


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  • Région

    Amérique latine et Caraïbes,

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  • Titre du rapport

    Happy but Unequal : Differences in Subjective Well-Being across Individuals and Space in Colombia

  • Mots clé

    complete secondary education; rural area; provision of health care; access to the internet; economic and social policy; quality of public service; social and economic development; access to health care; good quality of life; people in urban area; access to public transportation; social support; model specification; measure of use; perceptions of insecurity; public health service; high income inequality; mental health care; poverty alleviation program; opportunity for child; access to communication; perception of corruption; Regional Economic Development; method of moments; change in poverty; education and health; health care service; number of immigrants; flow of information; inflow of migrants; public policy outcome; standard of living; effects of poverty; Type of Investment; family and friends; economic policy instrument; access to water; duration of unemployment; place of residence; life satisfaction; employment status; quantile regressions; digital connectivity; spatial difference; marital status; health problem; household income; housing affordability; good health; recent studies; confidence interval; relative income; regression analysis; subjective data; Elementary Education; welfare distribution; Indigenous Peoples; independent variable; National Institutions; negative effect; social relation; economic security; spatial inequality; social unrest; health research; education level; high school; regression model; social life; standard deviation; individual characteristic; economic expectation; household composition; personal freedom; endowment effect; digital access; civil conflict; Economic Inequality; health status; Social Mobility; reference point; considerable difference; homicide rate; employment categories; standard error; psychological distress; monetary indicator; armed groups; in economics; increased income; youth development; national account; household survey; Poverty measures; Public Services; life chances; Basic Education; long-term impact; health indicator; urbanization level; empirical evidence; adequate nutrition; health outcome; robustness check; regression coefficient; public expenditure; informal worker; living standard; young people; age difference; social security; unequal country; environmental issue; individual difference; social cohesion; regional condition; minimum level; elementary school; smoking ban; international support; financial situation; socio-economic status; Labor Market; psychological factors; development policy; family relationship; economic deprivation; education status; environmental preservation; personal value; individual happiness; personal life; social media; related shock; technological advancement; new job; parental leave; cross-sectional data; migrant status; judicial system; ethnic inequality; monetary measure; middle class; political freedom; peace accord; economic freedom; intimate relationships; sensitivity analysis; social harmony; personal achievement; endogeneity issue; cross-country variation; instrumental variable; open access; healthy environment; migration status; road infrastructure; poverty policy; job opportunities; job opportunity; coefficient estimate; road access; genetic factor; Research Support; demographic composition; social network; mutual trust; social stability; educational system; rural resident; geographical area; empirical analysis; decomposition analysis; demographic group; unemployment spell; family life; social relationship; middle age; coastal region; panel data; income redistribution; empirical result; recent years; local factors; explanatory variable



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