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Earnings inequality within and across gender, racial, and ethnic groups in four Latin American Countries (anglais)

Latin American countries are generally characterized as displaying high income and earnings inequality overall along with high inequality by gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not a major contributor to the former phenomenon. Using household survey data from four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Guyana) for which stratification by race or ethnicity is possible, this paper demonstrates (using Theil index decompositions as well as Gini indices, and 90/10 and 50/10 percentile comparisons) that within-group earnings inequality rather than between-group earnings inequality is the main contributor to overall earnings inequality. Simulations in which the relatively disadvantaged gender and/or racial/ethnic group is treated as if it were the relatively advantaged group tend to reduce overall earnings inequality measures only slightly and in some cases have the effect of increasing earnings inequality measures.


  • Auteur

    Cunningham,Wendy, Jacobsen,Joyce Penelope

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  • Type de document

    Document de travail de recherche sur les politiques

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  • Région

    Amérique latine et Caraïbes,

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  • Titre du rapport

    Earnings inequality within and across gender, racial, and ethnic groups in four Latin American Countries

  • Mots clé

    earnings inequality;Poverty Reduction & Economic Management;white man;intergenerational transmission of inequality;source income;source of income;policy point of view;inequality measure;earnings distribution;differences in treatment;household earning;ethnic group;goodness of fit;gender wage gap;labor market liberalization;labor market discrimination;measure of earnings;white woman;labor market outcome;inequality between groups;inequality in earnings;control over resources;human capital endowment;high death rate;return to education;labor force participation;increase in inequality;primarily due;difference in wages;equal employment opportunity;Race or Ethnicity;treatment person;affirmative action program;dimension of inequality;measuring income inequality;labor market earning;labor market institution;reduction in poverty;Poverty & Inequality;conditional cash transfer;household survey data;implications for policy;affirmative action policy;minimum wage;individual earnings;between-group inequality;occupational sector;wage differential;indigenous people;inequality index;earnings equation;household structure;Indigenous Peoples;blinder decomposition;wage inequality;dominant group;labor earning;social network;ethnic differences;household composition;simulation procedure;wage distribution;explanatory variable;gender group;discrimination policy;household income;population subgroup;redistribution policy;simulation technique;occupational choice;inequality measurement;brazilian data;racial group;negative effect;estimation technique;simulation result;individual income;real impact;wage structure;rising inequality;low inequality;higher inequality;indigenous group;indigenous population;earnings regression;occupational status;random error;ethnic dimension;primary focus;original work;population study;extreme inequality;Political Economy;model result;pending issues;robustness check;net effect;educational expansion;productivity growth;racial category;social policy;Economic Inequality;income share;social policies;net change;earnings data;inequality values;racial democracy;income equalization;economic study;high wage;gender quota;brazilian case;empirical result;poverty change;brazilian women;persistent poverty;Gender Inequality;gender inequalities;inequality change;income poverty;world development;normal distribution;state policy;ethnicity differential;ethnic background;income growth;extreme poverty;ethnic inequality;positive relationship;benefit structure;blinder method;rural setting;formal sector;regression results;equal partner;base case;education level;equal pay;public sphere;greater access;regression analysis;gender analysis;geographic location;exponential distribution;white population;power relation;labor relation;demographic group;disequalizing effect;indigenous men;hourly earnings;individual level;family background;grade repetition;gender difference;spatial dimension;equal right;inequality level;measuring inequality;inequality fall;indigenous woman;educational inequality;country survey;data limitation;gender earnings;household characteristic;intergenerational mobility;participatory governance;positive return;evaluation study;employment effect;low-wage worker;real value;program effect;labor regulation;inequality reduction;informal sector;academic interest;research assistance;measured inequality;educational system;Economic Studies;



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